Every compact metric space is complete

I need to prove that every compact metric space is complete. I think I need to use the following two facts:

  1. A set $K$ is compact if and only if every collection $\mathcal{F}$ of closed subsets with finite intersection property has $\bigcap\{F:F\in\mathcal{F}\}\neq\emptyset$.
  2. A metric space $(X,d)$ is complete if and only if for any sequence $\{F_n\}$ of non-empty closed sets with $F_1\supset F_2\supset\cdots$ and $\text{diam}~F_n\rightarrow0$, $\bigcap_{n=1}^{\infty}F_n$ contains a single point.

I do not know how to arrive at my result that every compact metric space is complete. Any help?

Thanks in advance.

Solutions Collecting From Web of "Every compact metric space is complete"

Let $\langle F_n\rangle_{n\in\Bbb{N}}$ be a descending sequence of nonempty closed sets satisfy that $\operatorname{diam} F_n\to 0$ as $n\to\infty$. You can easily check that if $m_1<m_2<\cdots<m_k$ then
F_{m_1}\cap F_{m_2}\cap\cdots\cap F_{m_k} =F_{m_k}\neq \varnothing
so $\langle F_n\rangle_{n\in\Bbb{N}}$ satisfies finite intersection property. Since $(X,d)$ be a compact, $\bigcap_{n\in\Bbb{N}} F_n$ is not empty. Since
\operatorname{diam} \bigcap_{n\in\Bbb{N}} F_n \le \operatorname{diam} F_m\to 0\qquad \text{as }\> m\to\infty
so $\bigcap_{n\in\Bbb{N}} F_n$ contains at most one point. So $\bigcap_{n\in\Bbb{N}} F_n$ is singleton.

If you do not wish to use the Heine-Borel theorem for metric spaces (as suggested in the answer by Igor Rivin) then here is another way of proving that a compact metric space is complete:

Note that in metric spaces the notions of compactness and sequential compactness coincide. Let $x_n$ be a Cauchy sequence in the metric space $X$. Since $X$ is sequentially compact there is a convergent subsequence $x_{n_k}\to x \in X$.

All that now remains to be shown is that $x_n \to x$. Since $x_{n_k}\to x$ there is $N_1$ with $n_k \ge N_1$ implies $|x_{n_k}-x|<{\varepsilon\over 2}$. Let $N_2$ be such that $n,m\ge N_2$ implies $|x_n-x_m|<{\varepsilon \over 2}$.

Then $n>N=\max(N_1,N_2)$ implies
$$ |x_n-x|\le |x_n-x_N|+|x_N-x|<\varepsilon$$

Hence $X$ is complete.

This follows from Heine-Borel (see the wiki page for the relevant proofs).

Here’s a not-so-fancy way:

Let $\{a_n\}$ be a Cauchy sequence.

If the set of values in the (image of the) sequence is finite, then use the Cauchy criterion to show that the sequence is eventually constant (and so converges).

If the set of values of the sequence is infinite, then use compactness to finite a limit point of this set. Use this limit point to construct a convergent subsequence of the original sequence. Then use the Cauchy criterion to show the original sequence converges to the same limit as the subsequence.

Hint: If you have a sequence wherein $d(a_{N},a_{k})<r$ for all $k\geq N$, then the limit of that sequence, if exist, must be in the closure of the open ball radius $r$ around $a_{N}$.

Let $X$ be a compact metric space and let $\{p_n\}$ be a Cauchy sequence in $X$. Then define $E_N$ as $\{p_N, p_{N+1}, p_{N+2}, \ldots\}$. Let $\overline{E_N}$ be the closure of $E_N$. Since it is a closed subset of compact metric space, it is compact as well.

By definition of Cauchy sequence, we have $\lim_{N\to\infty} \text{diam } E_N = \lim_{N\to\infty} \text{diam } \overline{E_N} = 0$. Let $E = \cap_{n=1}^\infty \overline{E_n}$. Because $E_N \supset E_{N+1}$ and $\overline{E_N} \supset \overline{E_{N+1}}$ for all $N$, we have that $E$ is not empty. $E$ cannot have more than $1$ point because otherwise, $\lim_{N\to\infty} \text{diam } \overline{E_N} > 0$, which is a contradiction. Therefore $E$ contains exactly one point $p \in \overline{E_N}$ for all $N$. Therefore $p \in X$.

For all $\epsilon > 0$, there exists an $N$ such that $\text{diam } \overline{E_n} < \epsilon$ for all $n > N$. Thus, $d(p,q) < \epsilon$ for all $q \in \overline{E_n}$. Since $E_n \subset \overline{E_n}$, we have $d(p,q) < \epsilon$ for all $q \in E_n$. Therefore, $\{p_n\}$ converges to $p \in X$.