Intereting Posts

How to show that $\lim \frac{1}{n} \sum_{i=1}^n \frac{1}{i}=0 $?
Calculating probabilities over longer period of time
Elementary proof of Zsigmondy's theorem
What is the *middle* digit of $3^{100000}$?
Archimedean property
Prove that a polytope is closed
Banach Spaces – How can $B,B',B'', B''', B'''',B''''',\ldots$ behave?
Primality Test for $N=2\cdot 3^n-1$
Is there a domain “larger” than (i.e., a supserset of) the complex number domain?
Prove that e is irrational
Why is it called a 'ring', why is it called a 'field'?
Can we prove that the solutions of $\int_0^y \sin(\sin(x)) dx =1$ are irrational?
What is the next picture in this sequence?
How to compute $\lim_{n\rightarrow\infty}\frac1n\left\{(2n+1)(2n+2)\cdots(2n+n)\right\}^{1/n}$
Examples of fields of characteristic 0?

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a family of analytic functions in a domain $G$. Denote by $\mathcal{F}’:=\{ f’ \mid f \in \mathcal{F}\}$. It does not suffice to know that $\mathcal{F}’$ is normal to ensure that $\mathcal{F}$ is normal (namely take $\mathcal{F} = \{ n \mid n \in \mathbb{N}\}$ as a counterexample) but someone assured me that if you assume at some fixed point $z_0 \in G$, if you know that $f(z_0) = 0$ for all $f \in \mathcal{F}$ and that $\mathcal{F}’$ is normal, then $\mathcal{F}$ is normal. But I can’t see how to do it.

A friend tried something with line integrals to show that the $f$ are locally bounded on compact subsets, but he only considered compact sets that were the image of a path, which I don’t think is sufficient. Which characterization of normality should I try (local boundedness? convergence in the space of functions?)? Does anyone have an idea?

- Method of Steepest descent integral
- suppose $|a|<1$, show that $\frac{z-a}{1-\overline{a}z}$ is a mobius transformation that sends $B(0,1)$ to itself.
- Residues of the product of the gamma and zeta functions.
- The meaning of notation $\subset\subset$ in complex analysis
- Integral $\int_{0}^{\infty}e^{-ax}\cos (bx)\operatorname d\!x$
- Is conjugate of holomorphic function holomorphic?

- Evaluate integral: $ \int_{-1}^{1} \frac{\log|z-x|}{\pi\sqrt{1-x^2}}dx$
- Showing that $\sec z = \frac1{\cos z} = 1+ \sum\limits_{k=1}^{\infty} \frac{E_{2k}}{(2k)!}z^{2k}$
- Schwarz's lemma $\Rightarrow$ an analytic conformal map UHP$\to$UHP must be an FLT?
- Integral $\int_0^\infty \exp(ia/x^2+ibx^2)dx$
- Contour integral of $\sqrt{z^{2}+a^{2}}$
- Does a bounded holomorphic function on the unit disc have summable Taylor coefficients?
- Finding closed forms for $\sum n z^{n}$ and $\sum n^{2} z^{n}$
- How to evaluate integral using complex analysis
- product of harmonic functions
- Where is $\log(z+z^{-1} -2)$ analytic?

Let $\mathcal{F}$ be a family of analytic functions in a (connected) domain $G$

and assume that

- $\mathcal{F}’:=\{ f’ \mid f \in \mathcal{F}\}$ is normal

and - $\{ f(a) \mid f \in \mathcal{F}\}$ is bounded for some

$a \in G$.

Then $ \mathcal{F}$ is normal.

**Part 1:**

First we prove this for the special case that $G = D$ is an open *disk*:

Let $(f_n)$ be a sequence in $\mathcal{F}$. $\mathcal{F}’$ is normal,

so there exists a subsequence $f_{n_k}$ such that $f_{n_k}’$ is locally uniformly convergent

in $D$. $\{ f_{n_k}(a) \mid f \in \mathcal{F}\}$ is bounded and has

a convergent subsequence, so by taking

another subsequence we can assume that

$$

f_{n_k}’ \to g \text{ in } D \, , \quad f_{n_k}(a) \to w

$$

Now define for $z \in D$

$$

G(z) = w + \int_{[a, z]} g(t) \, dt

$$

where $[a, z]$ is the straight line from $a$ to $z$. $G$ is holomorphic in

$D$ and $G’ = g$, therefore

$$

f_{n_k}(z) – G(z) = f_{n_k}(a) – w + \int_{[a, z]} (f_{n_k}'(t) – g(t)) \, dt

$$

If $K \subset D$ is compact then choose a closed disc $B$ such that

$a \in B$ and $K \subset B \subset D$. Then $[a, z] \subset B$ for all $z \in K$ and therefore

$$

| f_{n_k}(z) – G(z)| \le | f_{n_k}(a) – w | + \text{diam}(D) \sup_{t \in B} | f_{n_k}'(t) – g(t)|

$$

and that converges to zero uniformly on $K$.

**Part 2:**

In order to generalize this to an arbitrary domain $G$ we define

$$

A := \{ z \in G \mid \mathcal{F} \text{ is normal in a neighborhood of } z \} \, .

$$

The aim is to show that $A = G$ by proving

- $A$ is open in $G$.
- $G \setminus A$ is open in $G$.
- $A$ is not empty.

Now (1) follows directly from the definition of $A$. Part 1 shows that $a \in A$, this is (3).

To prove (2) assume that $b \in G \setminus A$. Let $D$ be a disk

with center $b$ which is contained in $G$.

We’ll show that $D \subset G \setminus A$.

Assume that there exists a $c \in D \cap A$. Then $\mathcal{F}$

is normal in a neighborhood of $c$ and that implies that

$\{ f(c) \mid f \in \mathcal{F}\}$ is bounded.

(Otherwise $|f_n(c)| \to \infty$ for some sequence in $\mathcal{F}$,

but $(f_n)$ has a subsequence which converges in particular at

the point $c$.)

From part 1 it follows that $\mathcal{F}$

is normal in $D$ in contradiction to the assumption that $b \in G \setminus A$.

This proves that $ G \setminus A$ is open.

**Part 3:**

$G$ is *connected*, therefore from (1, 2, 3) above it follows

that $A = G$, i.e. *every* $z \in G$ has a neighborhood $U(z)$

such that $\mathcal{F}$ is normal in $U(z)$.

Since $G$ is the countable union of compact subsets, and each

compact subset is covered by finitely many $U(z)$, a classical

diagonal argument shows that $ \mathcal{F}$ is normal in $G$.

(Compare If a family of meromorphic functions is normal near each point in a region, then it's normal in the region.)

I may have worked it out. If anyone finds an issue, let me know!

Let $\{f_n\}$ be a sequence in $\mathcal F$. It suffices to show that $\{ f_n\}$ has a subsequence which converges uniformly on compact subsets of the domain $G$. Let $\{f_n’\}$ be the corresponding sequence of derivatives. Since $\mathcal F’$ is a normal family, we have that $\{ f_n’\}$ has a convergent subsequence, $\{f_{n_k}’\}$ which converges uniformly on compact subsets to a function $g \in \mathcal F’$. By the definition of $\mathcal F’$, we must have that $g = f’$ for some $f \in \mathcal F$.

Now we’d like to show that $\{f_{n_k}\}$ converges uniformly on compact sets to $f$. But since the $f_{n_k}’ \rightarrow f’$, applying the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus and continuity of the integral we have $\int f_{n_k}’ \rightarrow \int f’$ so $f_{n_k}(z) + C_{n_k} \rightarrow f(z) + C$. But since each $f_{n_k}$ and $f$ is in $\mathcal F$, we have that $f(0) = f_{n_k}(0) = 0$ and so the $C_{n_k} \rightarrow C$. Thus $f_{n_k} \rightarrow f$ uniformly on compact subsets, and so since the sequence $\{f_n\}$ was arbitrary, $\mathcal F$ is a normal family.

I’m worried about playing with the constants of integration (basically the FTC step in general) but I think it should work.

- If $A^2 = I$, $B^2=I$ and $(AB)^2=I$, then $AB = BA$
- Evaluate the double sum $\sum_{m=1}^{\infty}\sum_{n=1}^{m-1}\frac{ 1}{m n\left(m^2-n^2\right)^2}$
- Existence of a continuous function which does not achieve a maximum.
- Brave New Number Theory
- Generators of $\mathbb{Z}$ and $\mathbb{Z}$ when $\mathbb{Z}$, $\mathbb{Z}$ are f.g.
- Notations involving squiggly lines over horizontal lines
- Looking for an intuitive explanation why the row rank is equal to the column rank for a matrix
- parallelizable manifolds
- Irreducible in $\mathbb{Z}$
- Show $\lim\limits_{n\to\infty} \frac{2n^2-3}{3n^ 2+2n-1}=\frac23$ Using Formal Definition of Limit
- What are some applications of elementary linear algebra outside of math?
- Question about quadratic equation of complex coefficients.
- Math olympiad 1988 problem 6: canonical solution (2) without Vieta jumping
- Mathmatical Induction
- Is there a fast technique to tell that the poles of $\frac{1}{\sin z}$ are simple?