Consider a polynomial $P(z) = z^4 \in \mathbb{C}[z]$. Set-theoretically $P(z)$ has one root equal to zero. From algebraic point of view it has four roots: root zero has multiplicity four. Also we can’t draw a curve in $\mathbb{C}$ around one of such roots but not around the others. Now consider a Riemann surface $X$ given […]

I know that if function is meromorphic then it will have resiue. My simple question is if function is not meromorphic then can it have a residue, because I am not getting any such statement in my book. If it is correct or incorrect then plz help me with suitable example.

The integral along the path $\gamma(t)=e^{2ti},\;t\in[0,2\pi]$ is $\begin{equation*} \int_{\gamma}\frac{1}{z^{2}-1}dz \end{equation*}$. I approached this like a real integral in the hopes things would work out, first by performing a u sub $\begin{equation*} u=e^{2ti}\Rightarrow du=2e^{2ti}dt\Rightarrow dt=\frac{du}{2e^{2ti}} \end{equation*}$ Which brought me to $\begin{align*} &\int_{t=0}^{t=2\pi}\frac{i}{u^{2}-1}du= i\int_{t=0}^{t=2\pi}\frac{1}{(u+1)(u-1)}du\\ &=i\frac{1}{2}\int_{t=0}^{t=2\pi}\frac{1}{(u+1)}du- i\frac{1}{2}\int_{t=0}^{t=2\pi}\frac{1}{(u-1)}du\end{align*}$ In the reals this would obviously $\frac{i}{2}\log(e^{2ti}-1)-\frac{i}{2}\log(e^{2ti}+1)|_{t=0}^{2\pi}$ but i am pretty […]

The proof for this $$ e^{i\theta} = \cos(\theta) + i\sin(\theta) $$ using the MacLaurin series is all right for a high school level, but I dont understand why the series that has been derived for the reals should hold for complex numbers too. Could someone give a sufficient reason why it is correct to use […]

I am trying to prove that set of bounded, analytic functions $A(\mho)$, $u:\mho\to\mathbb{C}$ forms a Banach space. It seems quite clear using Morera’s theorem that if we have a cauchy sequence of holomorph functions converge uniformly to holomorph function. Now i am a bit confused what norm would be suitable in order to make it […]

I want to prove that if $\phi_a: B(0,1) \to \Bbb C$ is given by $\phi_a(z) = (z-a)/(1-\overline{a}z)$ with $|a| < 1$, then $|\phi_a(z)| < 1$. Resist the itch on your finger urging you to close the question: I already took a look at this question and this one. I’m supposed to prove things in the […]

I am trying to understand the identity $$(I-z^nT^n)^{-1} =\frac{1}{n}[(I-zT)^{-1}+(I-wzT)^{-1}+…+(I-w^{n-1}zT)^{-1}] \quad (*),$$ where $T \in \mathbb{C}^{n\times n},z\in \mathbb{C}$ and the spectral radius of $T$, $\rho(T)=\max\{|\lambda|: \exists v, Tv=\lambda v\}\leq 1$ and $|z|<1$ and $w$ is a primitive $n$th root of 1,i.e. $w =e^{i2\pi/n}$. I have tried using the identity $$[I-A]^{-1} = I+A+A^2+A^3+… $$ which holds when […]

For $y = y(x)$, convert the following equation $$ y”- 2xy’ + 2vy = 0;$$ where $v$ is a constant, into a Sturm-Liouville form $$ Ly = r(x)(\lambda)y,$$ $\lambda $ is a number, where $$ L := \frac{d}{dx} [ p(x) \frac{d}{dx} ] + q(x).$$ Here $r(x) > 0$ is a weight. The trick is to […]

For the following problem from Brown and Churchill’s Complex Variables, 8ed., section 84 Show that $$ \int_0^\infty\frac{\cos(ax) – \cos(bx)}{x^2} \mathrm{d}x= \frac{\pi}{2}(b-a)$$ where $a$ and $b$ are positive, non-zero constants, by integrating about a suitable indented contour. The contour in question is the upper half of an annulus bisected by the $x$-axis with an outer radius […]

Im trying to solve the following Poisson equation: $$u_{xx} + u_{yy} = \exp(-x^2)\ \text{for}\ x \in (-\infty, \infty)\ \text{and}\ y \in (0,1)$$ $$u(x,0) = 0,\ u(x,1) = 0$$ $$u(x,y) \to 0\ \text{uniformly as}\ |x| \to \infty\ \text{(i.e. compact support).}$$ I want to solve this using the Fourier Transform. I’ve tried taking the Fourier Transform with […]

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