To start off, I was looking at the following ingeniously made form of the Gamma function: $$\Gamma(z+1)=\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n!(n+1)^z}{(1+z)(2+z)\cdots(n+z)}$$ which lies on the back of $$1=\lim_{n\to\infty}\frac{n!(n+1)^z}{(n+z)!}$$ for all integer $z$. One them multiplies through by $z!$ and use the recursive formula for the factorial to reach the above formula. In the same light, I was wondering if […]

$$n=a^{(a+1)^{(a+2)^{(a+3)\cdots}}}$$ How would one go about solving in this equation? I am more used to solving equations in this form: $$n=a^{a^{a^{a\cdots}}}$$ Which you solve in this form: $$a^n=n$$ But how would you solve that equation at the top of the page though? If you were curious, and I know that SE likes what I have […]

I’m trying to compute the most right digit of ${{27^{27}}^{27}}^{27}$. I need to compute ${{27^{27}}^{27}}^{27}(\bmod 10)$. I now that ${{(27)^{27}}^{27}}^{27}(\bmod 10) \equiv{{(7)^{27}}^{27}}^{27} (\bmod 10)$, so now I need to to compute ${({7^{27})}^{27}}^{27} (\bmod 10)$, since $\gcd(7,10)=1$ and $\phi(10)=4$, $7^{27}=7^{24}\cdot 7^3(\bmod 10)=1 \cdot 7^3 (\bmod 10)=3 (\bmod 10)$ – (Fermat theorem), so I am left with […]

The sequence $a_n=(1/2)^{(1/3)^{…^{(1/n)}}}$ doesn’t converge, but instead has two limits, for $a_{2n}$ and one for $a_{2n+1}$ (calculated by computer – they fluctuate by about 0.3 at around 0.67). Why is this?

Solving $x^{x^{x^{.^{.^.}}}}=2\Rightarrow x^2=2\Rightarrow x=\sqrt 2$. Solving $x^{x^{x^{.^{.^.}}}}=4\Rightarrow x^4=4\Rightarrow x=\sqrt 2$. Therefore, $\sqrt 2^{\sqrt 2^{\sqrt 2^{.^{.^.}}}}=2$ and $\sqrt 2^{\sqrt 2^{\sqrt 2^{.^{.^.}}}}=4\Rightarrow\bf{2=4}$. What’s happening!?

With a computer or calculator, it is easy to show that $$ 2^{2^\sqrt{3}} = 10.000478 \ldots > 10. $$ How can we prove that $2^{2^{\sqrt3}}>10$ without a calculator?

How would one find: $$\frac{\mathrm d}{\mathrm dx}{}^xx?$$ where ${}^ba$ is defined by $${}^ba\stackrel{\mathrm{def}}{=}\underbrace{ a^{a^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^a}}}}}_{\text{$b$ times}}$$ Work so far The interval that I am working in is $(0, \infty)$. It doesn’t make much sense to consider negative numbers. Although there exists no extension to the reals for tetration I am going to assume that it exists. […]

Consider the following decision problem: given two lists of positive integers $a_1, a_2, \dots, a_n$ and $b_1, b_2, \dots, b_m$ the task is to decide if $a_1^{a_2^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{a_n}}}}} < b_1^{b_2^{\cdot^{\cdot^{\cdot^{b_m}}}}}$. Is this problem in the class $P$? If yes, then what is the algorithm solving it in polynomial time? Otherwise, what is the fastest algorithm that […]

I happened to ponder about the differentiation of the following function: $$f(x)=x^{2x^{3x^{4x^{5x^{6x^{7x^{.{^{.^{.}}}}}}}}}}$$ Now, while I do know how to manipulate power towers to a certain extent, and know the general formula to differentiate $g(x)$ wrt $x$, where $$g(x)=f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)^{f(x)^{.{^{.^{.}}}}}}}}}}$$ I’m still unable to figure out as to how I can adequately manipulate the function to differentiate […]

$$f(x) = \lim_{n\to \infty} \ln^{[n]} x \uparrow\uparrow n$$ The conjecture is that $f(x)$ is monotonic and infinitely differentiable at the real axis, but nowhere analytic; because at each point on the real axis, the Taylor series has a zero radius of convergence. The function is well defined at the real axis, but not as well […]

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