# Monotone Class Theorem and another similar theorem.

I found different statements of the Monotone Class Theorem.
On probability Essentials (Jean Jacod and Philip Protter) the Monotone Class Theorem (Theorem 6.2, page 36) is stated as follows:

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a class of subsets of $\Omega$ under finite intersections and containing $\Omega$. Let $\mathcal{B}$ be the smallest class containing $\mathcal{C}$ which is closed under increasing limits and by difference. Then $\mathcal{B} = \sigma ( \mathcal{C})$.

While on Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monotone_class_theorem) the theorem is:

Let $G$ be an algebra of sets and define $M(G)$ to be the smallest monotone class containing $G$. Then $M(G)$ is precisely the $\sigma$-algebra generated by $G$, i.e. $\sigma(G) = M(G)$.

Where a monotone class in a set $R$ is a collection $M$ of subsets of $R$ which contains $R$ and is closed under countable monotone unions and intersections.

It looks like the second theorem should be a special case of the first. Does the first prove the second? Is it possible to prove the first from the second? Is there a decent literature on those two theorems?

#### Solutions Collecting From Web of "Monotone Class Theorem and another similar theorem."

Both results are actually equivalent. You can prove one from the other.

Regarding the first result:

Let $\mathcal{C}$ be a class of subsets of $\Omega$ under finite intersections and containing $\Omega$. Let $\mathcal{B}$ be the smallest class containing $\mathcal{C}$ which is closed under increasing limits and by difference. Then $\mathcal{B} = \sigma ( \mathcal{C})$.

Some books call it “Monotone Class Theorem”, although this is not the most usual naming.

A class having $\Omega$, closed under increasing limits and by difference is called a “Dynkin $\lambda$ system”. A non-empty class closed under finite intersections is called a “Dynkin $\pi$ system”.

The result above can be divided in two results

1.a. A $\lambda$ system which is also a $\pi$ system is a $\sigma$-algebra.
1.b. Given a $\pi$ system, the smallest $\lambda$ system containing it is also a $\pi$ system.

Some books call result 1 (or result 1.b.) “Dynkin $\pi$-\lambda$Theorem. Some quick references is https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynkin_system The second result Let$G$be an algebra of sets and define$M(G)$to be the smallest monotone class containing$G$. Then$M(G)$is precisely the$\sigma$-algebra generated by$G$, i.e.$\sigma(G) = M(G)$. Where a monotone class in a set$R$is a collection$M$of subsets of$R$which contains$R$and is closed under countable monotone unions and intersections. is usually called “Monotone Class Lemma” (or theorem) you can find it in books like Folland’s Real Analysis or Halmos’ Measure Theory. In fact, Halmos presents a version of this result for$\sigma$-rings. Let$G$be ring of sets and define$M(G)$to be the smallest monotone class containing$G$. Then$M(G)$is precisely the$\sigma$-ring generated by$G$. Let us prove that the results are equivalent Result 1: Let$\mathcal{C}$be a class of subsets of$\Omega$under finite intersections and containing$\Omega$. Let$L(\mathcal{C})$be the smallest class containing$\mathcal{C}$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference. Then$L(\mathcal{C}) = \sigma ( \mathcal{C})$. Result 2: Let$G$be an algebra of sets and define$M(G)$to be the smallest monotone class containing$G$. Then$M(G)$is precisely the$\sigma$-algebra generated by$G$, i.e.$\sigma(G) = M(G)$. Where a monotone class in a set$R$is a collection$M$of subsets of$R$which contains$R$and is closed under countable monotone unions and intersections. Proof: (2$\Rightarrow$1). Note that any class containing$\mathcal{C}$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference is close by complement because$\Omega \in \mathcal{C}$, and so it is also closed by decreasing limits. So it is closed under countable monotone unions and intersections. It means: any class containing$\mathcal{C}$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference is monotone class. Note also that any class containing$\mathcal{C}$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference contains$A(\mathcal{C})$the algebra generated by$\mathcal{C}$. Then using Result 2 we have $$\sigma(\mathcal{C}) = \sigma(A(\mathcal{C})) = M(A(\mathcal{C})) \subseteq L(A(\mathcal{C}))=L(\mathcal{C})$$ Since$\sigma(\mathcal{C})$is a class containing$\mathcal{C}$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference, we have$L(\mathcal{C}) \subseteq \sigma(\mathcal{C})$, so$L(\mathcal{C}) = \sigma(\mathcal{C})$. (1$\Rightarrow$2). First let us prove that$M(G)$is a class containing$G$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference. Since$M(G)$is monotone, we have that$M(G)$is closed under increasing limits. Now, for each$E\in M(G)$, define $$M_E=\{ F \in M(G) : E\setminus F , F \setminus E \in M(G) \}$$ Since$M(G)$is a monotone class,$M_E$is a monotone class. Moreover, if$E\in G$then for all$F \in G$,$F\in M_E$, because$G$is an algebra. So, if$E\in G$,$G \subset M_E$. So, if$E\in G$,$M(G) \subset M_E$. It means that for all$E\in G$, and all$F \in M(G)$,$F \in M_E$. So, for all$E\in G$, and all$F \in M(G)$,$E \in M_F$. So, for all$F \in M(G)$,$G \subset M_F$, but since$M_F$is a monotone class, we have, for all$F \in M(G)$,$M(G)\subset M_F$. But that means that$M(G)$is closed by differences. So we proved that$M(G)$is a class containing$G$which is closed under increasing limits and by difference. So by Result 1, $$\sigma(G)=L(G) \subseteq M(G)$$ Since$\sigma(G)\$ is a monotone class, we have
$$M(G) \subseteq \sigma(G)$$
So we have $$\sigma(G)= M(G)$$