Series and integrals for inequalities and approximations to $\pi$


Two beautiful expressions that relate $\pi$ to its convergents are Dalzell integral


(see Why do we need an integral to prove that $\frac{22}{7} > \pi$?)

and the following equivalent form of Lehmer series
$$\pi-3=\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{24}{(4 k+1) (4 k+2) (4 k+4)}$$

(see, page 139)

These are direct proofs that $\pi>3$ and $\frac{22}{7}>\pi$, because of the positiveness of the closed form under the summation and the integral, respectively.


Evaluating Lehmer series leads to the integral
$$\pi-3=\int_0^1 \frac{4x^4(1-x)(2+x)}{(1+x)(1+x^2)}dx$$

Another relationship is given by the integral
$$\pi-3=\int_{0}^{1} \frac{2 x (1-x)^2}{1+x^2} dx$$

and the series
$$\pi-3=\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{24}{(4k+2)(4k+3)(4k+5)(4k+6)}$$

A series to prove $\frac{22}{7}-\pi>0$ is given by
$$\sum_{k=1}^\infty \frac{240}{(4k+1)(4k+2)(4k+3)(4k+5)(4k+6)(4k+7)}=\frac{22}{7}-\pi$$

which generalizes to
$$\sum_{k=n}^\infty \frac{240}{(4k+1)(4k+2)(4k+3)(4k+5)(4k+6)(4k+7)}=\int_0^1 \frac{x^{4n}(1-x)^4}{1+x^2}dx$$

With this expression approximating fractions from the integrals in the RHS may be computed sequentially by adding the next term in the series.

For $n=0$ we have
\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{240}{(4k+1)(4k+2)(4k+3)(4k+5)(4k+6)(4k+7)} \\
\int_0^1 \frac{(1-x)^4}{1+x^2}dx \\

and the same difference may be obtained from a series with three factors in the denominator and its corresponding integral

\sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{24}{(4k+4)(4k+6)(4k+7)} \\
\int_{0}^{1} \frac{4x^3(1-x)(1+2x)}{(1+x)(1+x^2)}dx \\

More convergents

For the third convergent, we have Lucas integral and a series
\int_0^1 \frac{x^5(1-x)^6(197+462x^2)}{530(1+x^2)}dx \\
\frac{48}{371} \sum_{k=0}^\infty \frac{118720 k^2+762311 k+1409424}{(4 k+9) (4 k+11) (4 k+13) (4 k+15) (4 k+17) (4 k+19) (4 k+21) (4 k+23)} \\


Finally, Lucas integral for the fourth convergent is
$$\frac{355}{113}-\pi=\int_{0}^{1} \frac{x^8(1-x)^8(25+816x^2)}{3164(1+x^2)}dx$$

Q Is there a series for $\frac{355}{113}-\pi$?

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