# Show that $\arctan(n)$ is irrational for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$

Question : Show that $\arctan(n)$ is irrational for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$.

Hint:

My solution doesn’t use continued fraction.

I am interested in other possible proofs for this question.

#### Solutions Collecting From Web of "Show that $\arctan(n)$ is irrational for all $n \in \mathbb{N}$"

Suppose that $\arctan n=r\in\Bbb Q$, where $n$ is a non-zero integer. Then $r$ is not zero, so $2r$ is not zero, and
$$\cos2r=\frac{\cos^2r-\sin^2r}{\cos^2r+\sin^2r} =\frac{1-\tan^2r}{1+\tan^2r}=\frac{1-n^2}{1+n^2}$$
which is rational. But this contradicts the result that the cosine of a non-zero rational number is irrational.

As for the proof of this result, it is usually done by taking an integral such as
$$\int_0^r f(x)\sin x\,dx\ ,$$
where $f(x)=x^n(a-bx)^{2n}(2a-bx)^n$ and $r=a/b$, and showing that if $n$ is large we get contradictory estimates for the integral. See, for example, my lecture notes, starting at page 20.